If the ring of the Dark Sun were to glow today, it would appear much larger than the White Sun. By my calculations, it would appear 3 times larger than the Normal Sun.

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The Sun of the Day sets at dusk. During the time of the Sumerians, this sunset marked the dawn of the Sun of the Night that they called the Black Sun. IMAGE CREDIT.

In Holy Sumerians, I stated that Sumerians were the first astronomers. They created the zodiac and observed the planets. They used the seven planets that they could see to develop a 7 day week (Yahweh did not create the 7-day week, he learned it from the Sumerians. That is right, Yahweh or Anochi learns from humans which means that he is not omnipotent nor all-knowing as the Epicurean Paradox argues).

The days of the week were dedicated to 7 planets that the Sumerians saw with their naked eyes and named. The first day of the week was dedicated to the Sun and the last day of the week was dedicated to the Sun.

The Sumerians described two Suns – a smaller brighter Sun that shines during the day and a larger less-bright Sun that shone during the night (the Black Sun). The sun that shined during the night is not the moon because Sumerians described the moon differently. The first day of the week was dedicated to the brighter sun and the last day of the week that was called the evil day was dedicated to the Black Sun.

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Iapetus as seen by the Cassini–Huygens space probe. It is the 11 largest moon in the solar system and is about 11% of the size of our earth.

After the establishment of Christianity, the first hint that this second (Black) Sun existed came in 1671 when Giovanni Domenico Cassini discovered a very strange moon that came to be called Iapetus. He was an astronomer who used a telescope to observe that this moon was black on one side and white on the other side, which meant that the moon was ploughing through dark material during its orbit, but this material was invisible to the human eye. How could this be? Was this dark material the same color as the dark background of space which meant that there was no zero color contrast, and thus the naked eye could not see it? The answer is yes because this material could only be seen when it coated the brightly colored Iapetus and thus discolored this moon as seen in the photograph. The white surface of Iapetus provided background contrast that allowed the dark material to be seen by the naked eye. Now, this presents a challenge: can there be black light? Could this dark material be emitting light that we cannot see today but was seen by Sumerians over 5000 years ago?

As explained in Numbers, Energy, and Metaphysics, the human eye can only see a limited range of the electromagnetic spectrum called the visible spectrum. Therefore, to see this dark material in a dark background, there is a need to use technological tools that could emit or detect electromagnetic waves that form the invisible part of this electromagnetic spectrum.

It is by using one such tool that the Black Sun was seen in 2009 by a team led by Doug Hamilton. Hamilton and his team from the University of Maryland used an infrared telescope called the Spitzer Space Telescope to sight the Black Sun. It was identified as a colossal ring that is still invisible to the naked eye to this day. If this ring of the Black Sun were to glow now, it would appear much larger than the sun; and by my calculations, it would appear 3 times larger than the normal sun.

So, does this ring of the Black Sun emit black light? If not, why call it the Black Sun? The answers to these 2 questions are provided later in this post. For now, let us consider the visible sun.

Sun of the Day

The first planet that provided light is what the Sumerians called ud, and it provided light during the day. Therefore, it can be described as the Sun of the Day. This is the Sun that the Romans called Sol and the Germans called Sunna in Old High German – and the Angles called Sunne in Middle English. We know this sun today as the source of the gravitational force that keeps the planets, moons, planetary satellites, and the asteroid belt in orbit.

Modern astronomy has allowed us to study the sun in detail and discover its unique capabilities, including the fact that it is white in color but appears yellow because of Rayleigh scattering of light in the upper atmosphere of Earth. Moreover, the white color of the sun indicates that its surface temperature is about 5700° Kelvins (5700°K) or 5427° centigrade/celsius (5727°C), unlike the star called Betelgeuse which appears red in color because its surface temperature is about 35,000°K or the star called Rigel that appears blue because its surface temperature is about 100,000°K.

The appearance of the Sun as white also means that the sun emits white light, which is why sunlight can be split by a prism into 7 colors of the rainbow – red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. It is interesting that the dominant wavelength of sunlight is the wavelength that the human eye sees as the color green. So, the fact that the sun appears yellow and not green when viewed from our homes reveals that human sight is not the best tool to be used for describing reality. For this reason, empiricism is needed as it provides a far better description of reality.

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The Sun is in the gravitational field that keeps the solar system in place. CREDIT.

The first day of the Sumerian week was named after Ud, the Sun of the Day. This is because the Sumerians considered the day to start at sunrise and therefore the week started with the planet that generates light and ends with the planet that provides light at night. Just like modern Christians, Sumerians dedicated their sun-day as their day of worship and veneration of the sun god, Utu (a name that was translated into Akkadian as šamšu or Shamash). The later Semitic people based their religions on the Sumerian religion but changed the day of worship to the last day of the week and this is likely because most Semitic people consider the day to start at sunset (or the dawn of the Black Sun).

Do you know that the Sumerians invented Sa-bat over 2000 years before Jews copied this concept from the Babylonians and made it into Shabbath and then dedicated it to their borrowed god, Yahweh?

Sumerians dedicated the day of the full moon to total rest, and this day was called sa-bat. On the other hand, the last day of the week was called the evil day by the Sumerians, and some tasks were prohibited, especially those related to the generation of new life e.g pruning and weeding of gardens. It is notable that the Semitic Jews and Arabs made this their day of worship.

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A statue of a Sumerian queen who ruled circa 2500 BCE. Statue dated to the Early Dynastic period of the Sumerian Civilization. CREDIT: Sumerian Shakespeare.

Another notable fact is the headdress. The Sumerians called themselves ug-sag-gi-ga which means people who wore a black head-dress (and their Semitic neighbors recognized them as such). However, in their Mesopotamian homeland of ki-en-gir, only the literate Sumerians wore this headdress which was shaped like a skullcap. It is interesting that the yarmulke worn by Jews, and the Kufi or Taqiyah worn by Muslims, are based on the skullcap worn by Sumerian priests and literati. For Jews and Muslims, they simply demanded that all adult males of their religions wear the skullcap. Also, only the Sumerian noblewoman was mandated to wear a headdress. This means that not all Sumerian women were required to wear a headdress.

Veneration of the Sun

The Romans venerated the Sun of the Day as the Sol Invictus (the Unconquerable Sun) and the Ancient Egyptians venerated it as Aten (or Aton [of the day]). In fact, Egyptian priests set their worship time to coincide with the time when the sun was at its highest point in the sky (i.e at mid-day) – and they described the sun at this position as the Most High God who could forgive sins and offer redemption (i.e atonement). It was for this reason that atonement prayers could only be offered during the day.

The first form of Monotheism was based on the worship of Aten and was instituted by the tyrant Amenhotep IV of the Eighteenth Dynasty (who is now popularly known as Akhenaten). Akhenaten revealed the intolerant nature of monotheism, which is based on choosing one of the gods as the only God and then punishing people who worship the other existing Gods.


Monotheism is a product of what the German biblical scholar, Julius Wellhausen, called monolatry. In monolatry, one of the gods in the pantheon of Gods is chosen as the supreme deity who is worthy of worship, e.g Zarathustra chose Ahura Mazda (the God of Wisdom) as the only God worthy of worship in his religious system which evolved to become Zoroastrianism. Usually, this supreme deity is assigned the role of the creator deity e.g Ahura Mazda – who was derived from the Old Babylonian god Marduk who was the son of the Sumerian solar deity, Utu – became the creator deity and the God of the forces of light (which is not puzzling considering Ahura Mazda is derived from the Sumerian god of the sun of the day). In Atenism, Aten was made the only God worthy of worship and was elevated to become the creator deity.


Monolatry becomes monotheism when it denies the existence of other Gods (from which the supreme deity was derived), usually at the pain of death. In Judaism, Yahweh – the god of thunderstorms – was chosen from the existing pantheon of gods, and made the only deity with anyone worshiping any of the other deities being punished by death.

As I explain in the Holy Sumerians: De Novo Theogenesis, Yahweh was originally a storm god of a people that the Ancient Egyptians called the Shasu of Yahweh. The Shasu likely made the Amorite god, Tidanu, their patron god and named him Yahweh. Professor Amar Annus has argued that the Greeks translated Tidanu as Titans. Annus also explained that the Amorites never invented this name, but got it from an ancient Semitic people called the Akkadians. Akkadians had a god called ditanu, and the Amorites translated this name as Tidanu. Akkadians acknowledged that ditanu was a god that was created by An – the sky god of the Sumerians – and ditanu was represented as a bull or an auroch. So, we have an argument that shows Yahweh as a derivative of the Sumerian god – An. In fact, Rabbi Wayne Dosick has written a book titled The Real Name of God: Embracing the Full Essence of the Divine that reveals that the real name of the God of the Hebrew Bible is Anochi which means An is the Source of Certainty.

Mohammed, the founder of Islam, based Allah on the most tyrannical form of Yahweh which is why Islam is described as Judaism for Arabs (and people who adopted this God of Mohammed).

Nowadays, Semitic neo-paganism – including Jewish neopaganism, Jewitchery, Beit Asherah, Am Ha Aretz, and the Kohenet [Feminist] Movement (that venerates the Sumerian-Ubaid-culture moon goddess, Inanna) – strives to allow Semitic people to reconstruct worship of other Gods apart from Yahweh and Allah (who now exist as tyrannical egregores).

Sun of the Night

The second planet of interest is what the Sumerians called the Sun of the Night and what the later Romans called Saturnus. We know it today as Saturn – a name derived from the Roman god of agriculture. The Sumerians described this planet as a small black spheroid surrounded by a ring of visible light hence its name, the Black Sun. Sumerians called Saturn gi-nna (or ge-nna) which shows that they considered it to be different from the utu (sun) and the moon. The Sumerians called the moon Na-nna (or na-an-na) because it appeared like a disk-lamp that emits light at night. For Sumerians, the night was illuminated by two heavenly bodies – the moon and the Black Sun.

Gi-nna is translated into Akkadian as Kayyamanu; and in both languages, it has the same meaning – a steady or regular or constant planet that emits light. When you go outside on a cloudless night during a full moon, you will not see Saturn emitting light. However, the Sumerians and the later Babylonians describe the Black Sun as being larger than the ordinary sun and it only appeared at night. So, what did they see that we cannot see today?


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Pictorial representation of the astronomical unit (au). CREDIT: Wikimedia.

Saturn is located about 1.3 billion kilometers away from Earth. On the other hand, the Sun is about 150 million kilometers away from Earth, and this distance is known as the astronomical unit. This means that Saturn is approximately 8.67 times farther away from Earth than the Sun. Relatedly, the radius of the Sun is estimated to be 695,700 kilometers (km). The radius of Saturn is measured as the distance from the center of the planet to its cloudy top and it is about 60,330 km. This value can be symbolized by Rs which denotes the radius of Saturn. To relate Rs to our planet which has an equatorial radius of 6,378 km, then we can state that Earth has a radius of 0.1057 Rs.

The first space probe sent to explore Saturn was the Pioneer 11 which was launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in April 1973. The next exploration was done by Voyager 1 space probe which was launched by NASA in September 1977 and was able to explore Saturn in 1980. The third exploration of this planet was the joint effort of NASA and the European Space Agency. They jointly launched the aforementioned Cassini–Huygens space probe in October 1977. This probe reached Saturn in 2004 and was able to explore it until 2017.

Up to now, we know that Saturn is about 10 times smaller than the Sun and about 8.67 times farther away from Earth. Using rough calculations, Saturn should appear 87 times smaller than the Sun but the Sumerians described the Black Sun as far larger than the Sun. How could this be?

Does Saturn Emit Light?

Saturn is a gas planet made up of a rocky core that is surrounded by what American physicists call the holy grail of high-pressure physics – metallic hydrogen. Metallic hydrogen is hydrogen gas that has been compressed to a pressure of 3,900,000 atmospheres. One atmosphere is the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level, which is measured as 760 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) at a temperature of 0° centigrade (0°C) by the mercury barometer. This is measured at standard earth gravity which has an acceleration value of 9.8067 meters per second square (m/s2).

At the high pressure of 3.9 Mega-Atmospheres, hydrogen exists as a liquid that can conduct electricity hence its designation as metallic hydrogen. This metallic hydrogen surrounds a near-spherical core. In turn, the metallic hydrogen is surrounded by a mixture of non-conductive liquid hydrogen and helium. This liquid mixture is surrounded by gaseous hydrogen.

The gaseous outer atmosphere of Saturn is saturated with ammonia crystals which gives it a yellow appearance. This means that Saturn appears yellow (whose color shade is close to butterscotch coloration) when viewed by a telescope, unlike the Sun which is white in color but appears yellow due to the Rayleigh scattering of light.

The core of Saturn has a diameter of between 25,000 – 102,000 km. The core temperature is about 11,700 °C – 15,000 °C which allows Saturn to radiate energy into the Solar System with current estimations being that it radiates 2.5 times the energy it receives from the sun. Basically, Saturn on its own radiates electromagnetic energy, just as the Sun radiates electromagnetic energy. This means that it is capable of heating up bodies that are near it, but not our Earth because it is located over a billion kilometers away. Moreover, the recent theory of helium rain developed by physicists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2015 postulates that Saturn emits light.

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Interior of Saturn. CREDIT: AllStars Blogs.
Theory of Helium Rain

Liquid helium and liquid hydrogen are mixed together in what I call the helium-hydrogen soup. Pressure and temperature increase in this mixture as it gets closer to the core. The Theory of Helium Rain states that the liquid helium separates from the liquid hydrogen and forms helium droplets. These helium droplets fall – or “rains” – down toward the core (due to gravitational pull). During this helium “downpour”, the droplets transform their gravitation-induced potential energy into heat and light energy. This transformation of energy from one form to another form e.g potential energy into heat energy is called (energy) transduction.

Equally, during the helium “downpour” or “rain”, the helium droplets collide with pressurized hydrogen and this creates friction that generates enormous amounts of heat and light energy that are radiated from the planet. Therefore, the energy released from friction and transduction of gravitational potential energy is radiated as heat and light energy. This explains why Saturn is brighter than expected for a cooling planet that obeys astronomical calculations based on the Kelvin-Helmholtz Mechanism.

This theory also postulates that a similar mechanism causes helium “rains” in the planet Jupiter.

If Saturn is luminous, how large would it appear to a person on Earth? The answer is simple, a luminous planet Saturn would appear quite small just as it appears today – a small spheroid star in the sky. This is not what the Sumerians described as the Big Black Sun. Also, why use the word black to describe a sun? The only reason is simple: the Black Sun appeared as a ring of light surrounding a black disc whose center appeared as a small luminous star. At the moment, we know that the small center in this Big Black Sun is the luminous Saturn. So, what about the luminous ring?

Rings of Saturn

Like Earth, Saturn is an oblate spheroid which means that its polar longitudinal distance is less than its equatorial diameter. This is due to its axial spin and the location of its center of gravity (CoG). Equally, axial rotation and location of CoG give Saturn a surface gravity of 8.96 m/s2 at the equator, which is quite high for a planet that is 95 times the size of Earth. This gravity requires an escape velocity of about 36,000 m/s for an object to fly away from Saturn. This is far higher than the escape velocity of Earth which is 11,200 m/s.

The high escape velocity of Saturn discourages astronomical vehicles from getting very close to it lest they are sucked and trapped in its orbit. This prevents close-quarter probing of this planet which explains why only 3 explorations have been conducted since 1973. On the other hand, the high escape velocity which is an attribute of Saturn’s gravitational pull ensures that it can generate enough gravitational energy to keep about 83 moons, hundreds of moonlets, and millions of solid rocks, ice particles, and stellar dust orbiting around it. This has led to the development of rings. The most notable feature of Saturn is its rings.

The main ring system is an annular disk that is flatly aligned with the equator of Saturn. This ring system is made up of 5 rings named the A, B, C, D, and F rings. The outer radius of this main ring system is 2 Rs which means that its furthest edge (from the planet) is located about 120,660 km from the center of Saturn.

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Rings of Saturn. PHOTO CREDIT: Wikimedia.

A small moon called Aegaeon orbits in the G ring. Aegenon has frequent impacts and collisions with meteors and other solid masses, and this results in the loss of solid mass in the form of ejecta. Because this moon has a weak gravity, this ejecta does not fall back on its surface but are instead pulled by the gravitational pull of Saturn and they end up orbiting the planet as dust hence the designation dust ring. The orbit of Aegaeon is inside this dust ring. The orbits of Aegaeon and the millions of ejecta (that form the dust ring) collectively make up the G ring which appears as a thin luminous ring when hit by sunlight. The G ring has an outer radius of 2.9 Rs which makes it larger than the main ring system.

The E ring is made up of uniformly sized ice particles and thus appears as a blue ring whose inner radius is 3 Rs and its outer radius is 9 Rs. It is most dense at 4 Rs because most of the ice particles are concentrated there. This is interesting because ice is condensed water, and the Sumerians in their creation narrative stated that there was water above the sky.

Were they referring to these ice particles in the E ring? If yes, this would mean that the Sumerians were able to see this ring with their naked eyes, and this can only happen if this ring is illuminated and then it would appear as a white ring of light. Is the illuminated E ring the reason why the Sumerians called Saturn the Black Sun? If so, what illuminated this ring at night?

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The labeled rings of Saturn, along with some of the prominent moons. CREDIT: NASA.

Light and Creation of Matter from Energy

The mass-energy equivalence principle states that energy is converted into matter if it is decelerated i.e its motion is slowed down. This means that matter is energy moving at a very slow speed. What is the value of this speed? To get the answer, it is important to re-arrange the equation of the mass-energy equivalence principle as follows:

Energy = Mass of Matter × (Speed of Light)2

Mass of Matter = Energy ÷ (Speed of Light)2

The Speed of Light is a numerical value that designates how fast the white light of the visible spectrum travels through a vacuum. This value is 299,792,458 meters per second (m/s) and is called the light-second unit of distance. To explain this unit of measuring distance, consider the fact that the light originating from the sun takes 500 seconds (or 8.3 minutes) to reach Earth. Therefore, one astronomical unit is equivalent to 500 light-seconds (or 8.3 light-minutes). This unit of measurement provides a simple way to measure great distances in our universe.

Back to the mass-energy equivalence principle, the value of (Speed of Light)2 is 8.987551787×10¹⁶ m2/s2. This means that if the motion of energy is reduced by this astronomically large factor of 8.987551787×10¹⁶, then matter is created. This occurs because when energy is decelerated by this factor, it acquires a new physical property called mass that is subject to gravitational pull, and this creates matter that now exists as an empirical object that has weight. Now, let us consider the reverse. What happens if matter is accelerated to move faster than the speed of light?

Cherenkov Effect

In 1934, Pavel Aleexevich Cherenkov while working at Lebedev Physical Institute observed that water glowed blue after it was irradiated. He also observed that solutions of uranium salt emitted light after it was irradiated by gamma rays. The eminent physicist Marie Curie observed similar blue luminescence of radium solution in 1910 but could not describe its cause.

Based on these observations, is it possible to transform water into a source of light? If yes, can condensed water i.e ice be transformed into a source of light? If this is possible, can fluids in the human body, e.g vitreous humor in the eye, be energized to become a source of light? For example, can the human eye be made to glow like a bulb? Most importantly, what could cause water to become a source of light?

To be continued soon…

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